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RoHS-analytics according to directive 2011/65/EC (RoHS 2)



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Screening by means of X-ray fluorescence analysis according to DIN EN 62321-3-1:2014-10 on Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr+6, Br



RoHS 2 directive


EC directive 2011/65/EC (RoHS 2) which replaced the initial version Directive 2022/95/EC – RoHS 1 on January 3rd, 2013 aims at banning hazardous substances like lead –Pb, mercury – Hg, cadmium – Dc, hexavalent chromium – Cr6+, polybrominated biphenyls – PBB as well as polybrominated diphenyl ether – PBDE in electrical and electronic equipment.

On March 31st, 2015 further elements like phthalates which are used e.g. as plasticisers were included.

Which products are affected by the new RoHS directive?

According to Article 3 (1) 2011/65/EC the directive shall apply to “electrical and electronic equipment’ or ‘EEE’ means equipment which is dependent on electric currents or electromagnetic fields in order to work properly and equipment for the generation, transfer and measurement of such currents and fields …”  in the following categories:

  1. Large household appliances
  2. Small household appliances
  3. IT and telecommunications equipment
  4. Devices of consumer electronics
  5. Lighting equipment
  6. Electrical and electronic tools
  7. Toys, leisure and sports equipment
  8. Medical devices
  9. Monitoring and control instruments
  10. Automatic dispensers
  11. Other electric and electronic equipment, EEE, not covered by any of the categories above

Substances and maximum concentration values 

Folgende Grenzwerte gelten für jeden „homogenen Werkstoff“ eines Artikels. Ein homogener Werkstoff ist  gem. Artikel 3, Absatz 20, 2011/65/EU ein „Werkstoff von durchgehend gleichförmiger Zusammensetzung oder ein aus verschiedenen Werkstoffen bestehenden Werkstoff, der nicht durch mechanische Vorgänge wie Abschrauben, Schneiden, Zerkleinern, Mahlen und Schleifen in einzelne Werkstoffe zerlegt oder getrennt werden kann.“

  Substance Limit value    Applications
  Lead, Pb 0,1 %
  • solders
  • alloying component in metals like steel, aluminium, copper
  • as stabiliser in plastics
  Mercury, Hg 0,1 %
  • tilt switches
  • mercury-vapour rectifier
  • fluorescent tubes, low-energy light bulbs
  Cadmium, Cd 0,01 %
  • nickel-cadmium accumulators
  • solar panels
  • as stabiliser, colourant in plastics
  Chromium VI, Cr+6 0,1 %
  • omponent of paints and varnishes, wood preservative
  • corrosion protection of metals- chromate inversion coating 
  Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB),
  Polybrominated Diphenylethers  (PBDE)
je 0,1 %
  • flame retardants in plastic insulations, cords


Screening for Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr+6, Br by means of XRF analysis according to DIN EN 62321-3-1:1:2014-10

DIN EN 62321 describes the screening analysis of five substances, specifically lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), total chromium (Cr) and total bromine (Br) in uniform materials found in electro- technical products, using the analytical technique of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry.

This analysis can be applied to polymers, metals and ceramic materials. The test procedure applies to raw materials, individual materials removed from products and “homogenized” mixtures made up of more than one material.

The analysis by means of XRF-screening provides information on the total quantity of each element contained in the specimen; it does not identify compounds and does not provide evidence on the valence of the elements. That is why special care must be taken concerning the screening analysis of chromium and bromine, as the result only shows total chromium and total bromine. The presence of hexavalent chromium – Cr (VI) or polybrominated flame retardants, PBBs, must be verified by means of other test procedures.


  • DIN EN 16424:2015-03 - Characterization of waste - Screening methods for the element composition by portable X-ray fluorescence instruments
  • DIN EN 62321-1:2014-02 - Determination of certain substances in electrotechnical products - Part 1: Introduction and overview.
  • DIN EN 62321-2:2014-09 - Determination of certain substances in electrotechnical products - Part 2: Disassembly, disjointment and mechanical sample preparation.
  • DIN EN 62321-3-1:2014-10 - Determination of certain substances in electrotechnical products - Part 3-1: Screening - Lead, mercury, cadmium, total chromium and total bromine by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry
  • DIN 51418-1:2008-08 - X-ray spectrometry - X-ray emission- and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) - Part 1: Definitions and basic principles
  • DIN 51418-2:2015-03 - X-ray spectrometry - X-ray emission and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) - Part 2: Definitions and basic principles for measurements, calibration and evaluation of results

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